Cyberstalking: Legal Definition, Psychological Impact and Taking Action

What is Cyberstalking?

Cyberstalking is the persistent and malicious harassment of an individual through online platforms, using various digital means to threaten, intimidate, or intrude upon someone’s privacy without their consent.

Introduction to Cyberstalking

In today’s digital age, the rise of technology and internet usage has led to an increasing number of cyber-related crimes, one of which is cyberstalking.

This menacing behaviour has evolved from traditional stalking, taking advantage of the vast online world to instigate fear and distress upon victims.

Cyberstalking Legal Meaning

Cyberstalking refers to the act of pursuing, harassing, or threatening an individual through digital means, such as email, social media, and other online platforms. This act can manifest in various forms:

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  • Sending unsolicited messages or comments;
  • Tracking online activities without consent;
  • Publishing defamatory or false information to tarnish the victim’s reputation;
  • Using the victim’s identity to deceive others;
  • Installing spyware or malware on the victim’s devices.

The Psychological Impact of Cyberstalking

Beyond the surface-level harm, cyberstalking can result in severe emotional and psychological consequences for the victim, including:

  • Anxiety and Fear: Victims often fear for their safety and the safety of their loved ones.
  • Depression: Prolonged cyberstalking can lead to feelings of hopelessness and despair.
  • Social Withdrawal: Victims might isolate themselves to avoid further harassment.
  • Paranoia: A constant feeling that they are being watched or monitored.

How is victim anonymity maintained when reporting cyberstalking?

Maintaining victim anonymity when reporting cyberstalking involves utilising confidential reporting systems where available, requesting that law enforcement withhold your identity from public records, and using anonymous tip lines or online reporting tools.

Law enforcement agencies often have protocols to protect victim information, and legal measures such as John Doe lawsuits can permit action while safeguarding a victim’s identity during the initial stages of legal proceedings, with full disclosure only if and when necessary for the case.

Legal Frameworks Addressing Cyberstalking

Many jurisdictions worldwide have recognised the dire consequences of cyberstalking and have put forth legal frameworks to address it:

  • United States: Under federal law, cyber-stalking is criminalised by 18 U.S.C. § 2261A. Many states also have separate laws addressing it.
  • European Union: Directive 2011/93/EU on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography addresses online stalking targeting minors.
  • Australia: It can be prosecuted under several laws, such as the Criminal Code Act 1995.

Taking Legal Action

If you believe you are a victim:

  • Preserve Evidence: Save screenshots, emails, messages, and any other form of communication.
  • Report: Inform local law enforcement about the harassment. In some cases, it might be beneficial to contact cybercrime units.
  • Consult with an Attorney: A legal professional can guide you through the process and ensure that your rights are protected.

How can you collect and preserve digital evidence of cyberstalking?

To collect and preserve digital evidence of cyberstalking, save all communications, including emails, text messages, and social media interactions. Take screenshots, especially of content that may be deleted or altered, and maintain detailed records of the incidents with dates and times.

Use a dedicated folder or drive to store this information securely. Document any unauthorised access to your accounts and preserve logs if available. It’s crucial to avoid altering or deleting the evidence and to report the stalking to authorities promptly.

What is the difference between cyberbullying and cyberstalking?

Cyberbullying is characterised by repeated online behaviour aimed at harassing, embarrassing, or demeaning an individual, often involving peers and seen among younger populations. Cyber-stalking, on the other hand, involves a pattern of malicious and repeated pursuit, with a clear intent to instill fear or exert control over another person’s life.

While cyberbullying can be a one-time event or involve multiple perpetrators, cyberstalking is typically a sustained, individual campaign. Additionally, cyber-stalking carries a more significant threat of real-world harm, often escalating to physical stalking or violence.

Can cyberstalking be a form of domestic violence?

Cyberstalking represents one aspect of abusive behaviour where an aggressor uses digital means to harass, intimidate, monitor, or control a current or former intimate partner. This form of stalking is a pattern of unwanted surveillance and communication that creates a threatening and fear-inducing environment, which is a hallmark of domestic abuse.

It often extends beyond physical boundaries, allowing the perpetrator to exert power and maintain coercive control over the victim’s life, perpetuating the cycle of abuse even without physical proximity.

Preventative Measures

  • Maintain Privacy: Be cautious about sharing personal information online. Utilise privacy settings on social media platforms.
  • Two-Factor Authentication: This extra layer of security can prevent unauthorised access.
  • Regularly Monitor Online Presence: Periodically Google your name to see if there’s unwanted information or false narratives being spread.

Can a VPN (Virtual Private Network) prevent cyberstalking?

A VPN can help prevent cyberstalking by masking your IP address, encrypting your internet connection, and obscuring your online activities from potential stalkers. It makes it more difficult for a cyberstalker to track your online movements, reducing the risk of being followed or monitored across the web.


It is an infringement on an individual’s right to live without fear. As technology continues to evolve, so too must our understanding and approach to these cyber threats.

With awareness, education, and stringent legal frameworks, society can hope to deter potential stalkers and protect potential victims from this nefarious digital behaviour.

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